SpringMVC 入门项目

环境搭建

  1. 新建Maven工程

  2. 选中Create from archetype,并且选择webapp

  3. 项目名称,位置等

  4. 完成创建

  5. 在main目录下新建java目录和resources目录

  6. java目录设置为Srouces Root,将resources目录设置为Resources Root

  7. 引入坐标依赖

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    
    <project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
             xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
        <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    
        <groupId>com.oylong</groupId>
        <artifactId>springmvc01</artifactId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
        <packaging>war</packaging>
    
        <name>springmvc01 Maven Webapp</name>
        <!-- FIXME change it to the project's website -->
        <url>http://www.example.com</url>
    
        <properties>
            <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
            <maven.compiler.source>1.8</maven.compiler.source>
            <maven.compiler.target>1.8</maven.compiler.target>
            <spring.version>5.0.2.RELEASE</spring.version>
        </properties>
    
        <dependencies>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>junit</groupId>
                <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
                <version>4.11</version>
                <scope>test</scope>
            </dependency>
    
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-context</artifactId>
                <version>${spring.version}</version>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-web</artifactId>
                <version>${spring.version}</version>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-webmvc</artifactId>
                <version>${spring.version}</version>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
                <artifactId>servlet-api</artifactId>
                <version>2.5</version>
                <scope>provided</scope>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>javax.servlet.jsp</groupId>
                <artifactId>jsp-api</artifactId>
                <version>2.0</version>
                <scope>provided</scope>
            </dependency>
    
        </dependencies>
    
        <build>
            <finalName>springmvc01</finalName>
            <pluginManagement><!-- lock down plugins versions to avoid using Maven defaults (may be moved to parent pom) -->
                <plugins>
                    <plugin>
                        <artifactId>maven-clean-plugin</artifactId>
                        <version>3.1.0</version>
                    </plugin>
                    <!-- see http://maven.apache.org/ref/current/maven-core/default-bindings.html#Plugin_bindings_for_war_packaging -->
                    <plugin>
                        <artifactId>maven-resources-plugin</artifactId>
                        <version>3.0.2</version>
                    </plugin>
                    <plugin>
                        <artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
                        <version>3.8.0</version>
                    </plugin>
                    <plugin>
                        <artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
                        <version>2.22.1</version>
                    </plugin>
                    <plugin>
                        <artifactId>maven-war-plugin</artifactId>
                        <version>3.2.2</version>
                    </plugin>
                    <plugin>
                        <artifactId>maven-install-plugin</artifactId>
                        <version>2.5.2</version>
                    </plugin>
                    <plugin>
                        <artifactId>maven-deploy-plugin</artifactId>
                        <version>2.8.2</version>
                    </plugin>
                </plugins>
            </pluginManagement>
        </build>
    </project>
  8. 配置web.xml

    <!DOCTYPE web-app PUBLIC
     "-//Sun Microsystems, Inc.//DTD Web Application 2.3//EN"
     "http://java.sun.com/dtd/web-app_2_3.dtd" >
    
    <web-app>
      <display-name>Archetype Created Web Application</display-name>
    
      <servlet>
        <servlet-name>dispatcherServlet</servlet-name>
        <servlet-class>org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet</servlet-class>
      </servlet>
    
      <servlet-mapping>
        <servlet-name>dispatcherServlet</servlet-name>
        <url-pattern>/</url-pattern>
      </servlet-mapping>
    </web-app>
  9. 新建SpringMVC的配置文件,在resources目录下创建Spring Config

  10. 部署Tomcat服务器

代码编写

  1. 删除原有的index.jsp

  2. 创建新的index.jsp(带编码的)

  3. 建立com.oylong.controller.HelloController

  4. 写返回方法

  5. 配置springmvc.xml,开启注解扫描

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
           xmlns:mvc="http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc"
           xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
           xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="
    http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
    http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc
    http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc/spring-mvc.xsd
    http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
    http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd">
    
        <context:component-scan base-package="com.oylong"></context:component-scan>
    
    </beans>
  6. Controller上加入注解@Controller

  7. 返回方法上加上注解@RequestMapping

    package com.oylong.controller;
    
    import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;
    import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
    
    @Controller
    public class HelloController {
        @RequestMapping(path = "/hello")
        public String hello() {
            return "success";
        }
    }
  8. web.xml加入初始化参数

      <servlet>
        <servlet-name>dispatcherServlet</servlet-name>
        <servlet-class>org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet</servlet-class>
        <init-param>
          <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>
          <param-value>classpath:springmvc.xml</param-value>
        </init-param>
        <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup>
      </servlet>
  9. SpringMvc的配置文件中配置视图解析器和开启SpringMVC框架对注解的支持

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
           xmlns:mvc="http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc"
           xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
           xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="
    http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
    http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc
    http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc/spring-mvc.xsd
    http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
    http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd">
    
        <context:component-scan base-package="com.oylong"></context:component-scan> <!--开启扫描注解-->
    
        <bean id="internalResourceViewResolver" class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.InternalResourceViewResolver">
            <property name="prefix" value="/WEB-INF/pages/" />
            <property name="suffix" value=".jsp"/>
        </bean>
        <!--配置视图解析器扫描注解-->
    
        <mvc:annotation-driven/>   <!--开启对注解的支持-->
    </beans>
  10. 完善主页

     <%--
       Created by IntelliJ IDEA.
       User: oylong
       Date: 2020/3/27
       Time: 3:21 下午
       To change this template use File | Settings | File Templates.
     --%>
     <%@ page contentType="text/html;charset=UTF-8" language="java" %>
     <html>
     <head>
         <title>Title</title>
     </head>
     <body>
     <h3>入门程序</h3>
     <a href="/hello">入门程序</a>
     </body>
     </html>
  11. 运行项目即可

ReqeustMapping注解

  1. RequestMapping注解的作用是建立请求URL和处理方法之间的对应关系

  2. RequestMapping注解可以作用在方法和类上

    • 作用在类上:第一级的访问目录

    • 作用在方法上:第二级的访问目录

    • 细节:路径可以不编写 / 表示应用的根目录开始

    • 细节:${ pageContext.request.contextPath }也可以省略不写,但是路径上不能写 /

  3. RequestMapping的属性

  • path:制定请求的url

  • value:与path属性一样

  • mthod:方法的请求方式

  • params:制定限制请求参数的条件

  • headers:发送的请求中必须包含的请求头

最后修改:2020 年 03 月 27 日 04 : 34 PM
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